One of the oldest centers of Bukhara oasis Paikend city is located in the lower reaches of the Zarafshan River, which originated at the beginning as a settlement, and then as a fortress at the end of 4-2 centuries BC.
Fortress Paikend already at that time played an important strategic role: as a border military and trading center on the western outskirts of Sogd and as an important junction of the Silk Road, which linked India, Bactria, Nahshab and further along the now dry bed of Kashkadarya with Khorezm and northern countries.
The greatest heyday of Paikend refers to 6-8 cc, due to its location, the city was one of the strong points on the transcontinental route of the Silk Road.
Paikend, unlike other cities in Central Asia, had no ruler, it was a kind of "merchant republic", the silk trade flourished here. After the conquest of Central Asia by Arabs in 8th century, Paikend became one of the largest anti-nomads centers of Bukhara oasis.
Life went on here until the 12th century. Paikend often referred to as the "Asian Pompeii." The town was absorbed by the desert, this explains that Paikend gradually filled with sand, is well preserved until nowadays.
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